Hi Students! If you are in Intermediate First Year and searching for JAC Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020, then you are at the right page. You will get here complete details about Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Syllabus for Jharkhand Board.
Chemistry Syllabus for Intermediate Second Year is divided into two books, namely Part I and Part II. The first part consists of 9 Chapters and the other one also contains 7 Chapters. Thus, there are 16 chapters in total.
We will discuss both the parts, their chapters and some major topics in all chapters. Also, if you need, you can Download PDF of JAC Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus by clicking the download button given on the last section of this article.
NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2019-20
The chapters included in the first part & second part of JAC Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus are as follows:
|PART I||PART II|
|1. The Solid State||10. Haloalkenes and Haloarenes|
|2. Solutions||11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|3. Electrochemistry||12. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|4. Chemical Kinetics|
|5. Surface Chemistry||13. Amines|
|6. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements||14. Biomolecules|
|7. The p-Block Elements||15. Polymers|
|8.The d-and f-Block Elements||16. Chemistry in Everyday Life|
|9. Coordination Compounds|
So, these all are the 16 chapters which you have to study in Class 12 Chemistry subject. Now, let’s jump into the detailed discussion of the topics of each chapter of JAC Board NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus.
Chapter 1: The Solid State
We know that liquids and gases are called fluids because of their ability to flow. The fluidity in both of these states is due to the fact that the molecules are free to move about.
On the contrary, the constituent particles in solids have fixed positions and can only oscillate about their mean positions. This explains the rigidity in solids. These properties depend upon the nature of constituent particles and the binding forces operating between them.
The correlation between structure and properties helps in the discovery of new solid materials with desired properties. For example, carbon nanotubes are new materials that have potential to provide material that are tougher than steel, lighter than aluminium and have more conductive property than copper. Such materials may play an expanding role in future development of science and society.
Some other materials which are expected to play an important role in future are high temperature superconductors, magnetic materials, biodegradable polymers for packaging, biocompliant solids for surgical implants, etc. Thus, the study of this state becomes more important in the present scenario.
- General Characteristics of Solid State
- Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
- Classification of Crystalline Solids
- Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
- Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
- Close Packed Structures
- Packing Efficiency
- Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
- Imperfections in Solids
- Electrical Properties
- Magnetic Properties
Chapter 2: Solutions
In normal life we rarely come across pure substances. Most of these are mixtures containing two or more pure substances. Their utility or importance in life depends on their composition.
For example, the properties of brass (mixture of copper and zinc) are quite different from those of German silver (mixture of copper, zinc and nickel) or bronze (mixture of copper and tin); 1 part per million (ppm) of fluoride ions in water prevents tooth decay, while 1.5 ppm causes the tooth to become mottled and high concentrations of fluoride ions can be poisonous (for example, sodium fluoride is used in rat poison); intravenous injections are always dissolved in water containing salts at particular ionic concentrations that match with blood plasma concentrations and so on.
- Types of Solutions
- Expressing Concentration of Solutions
- Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
- Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
- Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
- Abnormal Molar Masses
Chapter 3: Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry is the study of production of electricity from energy released during spontaneous chemical reactions and the use of electrical energy to bring about non-spontaneous chemical transformations. The subject is of importance both for theoretical and practical considerations.
A large number of metals, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, fluorine and many other chemicals are produced by electrochemical methods. Batteries and fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy and are used on a large scale in various instruments and devices. The reactions carried out electrochemically can be energy efficient and less polluting.
Therefore, study of electrochemistry is important for creating new technologies that are eco-friendly. The transmission of sensory signals through cells to brain and vice versa and communication between the cells are known to have electrochemical origin.
- Electrochemical Cells
- Galvanic Cells
- Nernst Equation
- Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
- Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
- Fuel Cells
Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics
Chemistry, by its very nature, is concerned with change. Substances with well defined properties are converted by chemical reactions into other substances with different properties.
For any chemical reaction, chemists try to find out: (a) the feasibility of a chemical reaction which can be predicted by thermodynamics ( as you know that a reaction with ∆G < 0, at constant temperature and pressure is feasible); (b) extent to which a reaction will proceed can be determined from chemical equilibrium; (c) speed of a reaction i.e. time taken by a reaction to reach equilibrium. Along with feasibility and extent, it is equally important to know the rate and the factors controlling the rate of a chemical reaction for its complete understanding.
For example, which parameters determine as to how rapidly food gets spoiled? How to design a rapidly setting material for dental filling? Or what controls the rate at which fuel burns in an auto engine? All these questions can be answered by the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of reaction rates and their mechanisms, called chemical kinetics.
- Rate of a Chemical Reaction
- Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
- Integrated Rate Equations
- Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
- Collision Therapy of Chemical Reactions
Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry
Surface chemistry deals with phenomena that occur at the surfaces or interfaces. The interface or surface is represented by separating the bulk phases by a hyphen or a slash.
For example, the interface between a solid and a gas may be represented by solid-gas or solid/gas. Due to complete miscibility, there is no interface between the gases. The bulk phases that we come across in surface chemistry may be pure compounds or solutions.
The interface is normally a few molecules thick but its area depends on the size of the particles of bulk phases. Many important phenomena, noticeable amongst these being corrosion, electrode processes, heterogeneous catalysis, dissolution and crystallisation occur at interfaces. The subject of surface chemistry finds many applications in industry, analytical work and daily life situations.
- Classification of Colloids
- Colloids Around Us
Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
The history of civilisation is linked to the use of metals in antiquity in many ways. Different periods of early human civilisations have been named after metals. The skill of extraction of metals gave many metals and brought about several changes in the human society. It gave weapons, tools, ornaments, utensils, etc., and enriched the cultural life.
The ‘Seven metals of antiquity’, as they are sometimes called, are gold, copper, silver, lead, tin, iron and mercury. Although modern metallurgy had exponential growth after Industrial Revolution, it is interesting to note that many modern concepts in metallurgy have their roots in ancient practices that pre-dated the Industrial Revolution. For over 7000 years, India has had a rich tradition of metallurgical skills.
- Occurrence of Metals
- Concentration of Ores
- Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
- Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
- Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
- Oxidation Reduction
- Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron
Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements
The p-block elements are placed in groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table. Their valence shell electronic configuration is ns2 np1–6 (except He which has 1s 2 configuration). The properties of p-block elements like that of others are greatly influenced by atomic sizes, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity.
The absence of dorbitals in second period and presence of d or d and f orbitals in heavier elements (starting from third period onwards) have significant effects on the properties of elements. In addition, the presence of all the three types of elements; metals, metalloids and non-metals bring diversification in chemistry of these elements.
- Grou 15 Elements
- Oxides of Nitrogen
- Nitric Acid
- Phosphorus – Allotropic Forms
- Phosphorus Halides
- Oxoacids of Phosphorus
- Group 16 Elements
- Simple Oxides
- Sulphur – Allotropic Forms
- Sulphur Dioxide
- Oxoacids of Sulphur
- Sulphuric Acid
- Group 17 Elements
- Hydrogen Chloride
- Oxoacids of Halogens
- Interhalogen Compounds
- Group 18 Elements
Chapter 8: The d-and f-Block Elements
The d-block of the periodic table contains the elements of the groups 3-12 in which the d orbitals are progressively filled in each of the four long periods. The f-block consists of elements in which 4 f and 5 f orbitals are progressively filled.
They are placed in a separate panel at the bottom of the periodic table. The names transition metals and inner transition metals are often used to refer to the elements of d-and f-blocks respectively. There are mainly four series of the transition metals, 3d series (Sc to Zn), 4d series (Y to Cd), 5d series (La and Hf to Hg) and 6d series which has Ac and elements from Rf to Cn.
The two series of the inner transition metals; 4f (Ce to Lu) and 5f (Th to Lr) are known as lanthanoids and actinoids respectively.
- Position in the Periodic Table
- Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
- General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
- Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
- The Lanthanoids
- The Actinoids
- Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements
Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds
The transition metals form a large number of complex compounds in which the metal atoms are bound to a number of anions or neutral molecules by sharing of electrons. In modern terminology such compounds are called coordination compounds.
The chemistry of coordination compounds is an important and challenging area of modern inorganic chemistry. New concepts of chemical bonding and molecular structure have provided insights into the functioning of these compounds as vital components of biological systems.
Chlorophyll, haemoglobin and vitamin B12 are coordination compounds of magnesium, iron and cobalt respectively. Variety of metallurgical processes, industrial catalysts and analytical reagents involve the use of coordination compounds. Coordination compounds also find many applications in electroplating, textile dyeing and medicinal chemistry.
- Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
- Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
- Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
- Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
- Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds
Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
The replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon by halogen atom(s) results in the formation of alkyl halide (haloalkane) and aryl halide (haloarene), respectively. Haloalkanes contain halogen atom(s) attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group whereas haloarenes contain halogen atom(s) attached to sp2 hybridised carbon atom(s) of an aryl group.
Many halogen containing organic compounds occur in nature and some of these are clinically useful. These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in dayto-day life. They are used as solvents for relatively non-polar compounds and as starting materials for the synthesis of wide range of organic compounds. Chlorine containing antibiotic, chloramphenicol, produced by microorganisms is very effective for the treatment of typhoid fever.
Our body produces iodine containing hormone, thyroxine, the deficiency of which causes a disease called goiter. Synthetic halogen compounds, viz. chloroquine is used for the treatment of malaria; halothane is used as an anaesthetic during surgery. Certain fully fluorinated compounds are being considered as potential blood substitutes in surgery.
- Nature of C-X Bond
- Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes
- Preparation of Haloarenes
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
The substitution of one or more hydrogen atom(s) from a hydrocarbon by another atom or a group of atoms result in the formation of an entirely new compound having altogether different properties and applications.
Alcohols and phenols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic and aromatic respectively, is replaced by –OH group. These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in day-to-day life.
For instance, have you ever noticed that ordinary spirit used for polishing wooden furniture is chiefly a compound containing hydroxyl group, ethanol. The sugar we eat, the cotton used for fabrics, the paper we use for writing, are all made up of compounds containing –OH groups. Just think of life without paper; no note-books, books, newspapers, currency notes, cheques, certificates, etc.
The magazines carrying beautiful photographs and interesting stories would disappear from our life. It would have been really a different world.
- Structure of Functional Groups
- Alcohols and Phenols
- Some Commercially Important Alcohols
Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
In the previous Unit, you have studied organic compounds with functional groups containing carbonoxygen single bond. In this Unit, we will study about the organic compounds containing carbon-oxygen double bond (>C=O) called carbonyl group, which is one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry.
In aldehydes, the carbonyl group is bonded to a carbon and hydrogen while in the ketones, it is bonded to two carbon atoms. The carbonyl compounds in which carbon of carbonyl group is bonded to carbon or hydrogen and oxygen of hydroxyl moiety (-OH) are known as carboxylic acids, while in compounds where carbon is attached to carbon or hydrogen and nitrogen of -NH2 moiety or to halogens are called amides and acyl halides respectively. Esters and anhydrides are derivatives of carboxylic acids.
- Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
- Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
- Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Carboxylic Acids
Chapter 13: Amines
Amines constitute an important class of organic compounds derived by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia molecule by alkyl/aryl group(s). In nature, they occur among proteins, vitamins, alkaloids and hormones. Synthetic examples include polymers, dye stuffs and drugs.
Two biologically active compounds, namely adrenaline and ephedrine, both containing secondary amino group, are used to increase blood pressure. Novocain, a synthetic amino compound, is used as an anaesthetic in dentistry. Benadryl, a well known antihistaminic drug also contains tertiary amino group.
Quaternary ammonium salts are used as surfactants. Diazonium salts are intermediates in the preparation of a variety of aromatic compounds including dyes.
- Structure of Amines
- Preparation of Amines
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Properties
- Methods of Preparation of Diazonium Salts
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds
Chapter 14: Biomolecules
A living system grows, sustains and reproduces itself. The most amazing thing about a living system is that it is composed of non-living atoms and molecules. The pursuit of knowledge of what goes on chemically within a living system falls in the domain of biochemistry.
Living systems are made up of various complex biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Proteins and carbohydrates are essential constituents of our food. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the molecular logic of life processes.
In addition, some simple molecules like vitamins and mineral salts also play an important role in the functions of organisms. Structures and functions of some of these biomolecules are discussed in this chapter.
- Nucleic Acids
Chapter 15: Polymers
Do you think that daily life would have been easier and colourful without the discovery and varied applications of polymers? The use of polymers in the manufacture of plastic buckets, cups and saucers, children’s toys, packaging bags, synthetic clothing materials, automobile tyres, gears and seals, electrical insulating materials and machine parts has completely revolutionised the daily life as well as the industrial scenario.
Indeed, the polymers are the backbone of four major industries viz. plastics, elastomers, fibres and paints and varnishes. The word ‘polymer’ is coined from two Greek words: poly means many and mer means unit or part. The term polymer is defined as very large molecules having high molecular mass (103 -107u).
These are also referred to as macromolecules, which are formed by joining of repeating structural units on a large scale. The repeating structural units are derived from some simple and reactive molecules known as monomers and are linked to each other by covalent bonds. The process of formation of polymers from respective monomers is called polymerisation.
- Classification of Polymers
- Types of Polymerisation Reactions
- Molecular Mass of Polymers
- Biodegradable Polymers
- Polymers of Commercial Importance
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
By now, you have learnt the basic principles of chemistry and also realised that it influences every sphere of human life. The principles of chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind. Think of cleanliness — the materials like soaps, detergents, household bleaches, tooth pastes, etc. will come to your mind.
Look towards the beautiful clothes — immediately chemicals of the synthetic fibres used for making clothes and chemicals giving colours to them will come to your mind. Food materials — again a number of chemicals about which you have learnt in the previous Unit will appear in your mind. Of course, sickness and diseases remind us of medicines — again chemicals. Explosives, fuels, rocket propellents, building and electronic materials, etc., are all chemicals.
Chemistry has influenced our life so much that we do not even realise that we come across chemicals at every moment; that we ourselves are beautiful chemical creations and all our activities are controlled by chemicals. In this Unit, we shall learn the application of Chemistry in three important and interesting areas, namely – medicines, food materials and cleansing agents.
- Drugs and their Classification
- Drug-Target Interaction
- Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
- Chemicals in Food
- Cleansing Agents
Conclusion: Jharkhand Board Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus
So friends! This is the Complete NCERT Syllabus for Intermediate Second Year Class 12 Chemistry. I hope this article might have helped you in your search for JAC Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020.
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