Hi Students! If you are in Intermediate First Year and searching for JAC Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020, then you are at the right page. You will get here complete details about Class 12 Physics NCERT Syllabus for Jharkhand Board.
Physics Syllabus for Intermediate Second Year is divided into two books, namely Part I and Part II. The first part consists of 8 Chapters and the other one contains 6 Chapters. Thus, there are 14 chapters in total.
We will discuss both the parts, their chapters and some major topics in all chapters. Also, if you need, you can Download PDF of JAC Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus by clicking the download button given on the last section of this article.
NCERT Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-21
The chapters included in the first part & second part of JAC Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus are as follows:
|PART I||PART II|
|1. Electric Charges and Fields||9. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments|
|2. Electrostatic Potential & Capacitance||10. Wave Optics|
|3. Current Electricity||11. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter|
|4. Moving Charges and Magnetism||12. Atoms|
|5. Magnetism and Matter||13. Nuclei|
|6. Electromagnetic Induction||14. Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits|
|7. Alternating Current|
|8. Electromagnetic Waves|
Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather. This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon?
Another common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a bus after sliding from our seat.
The reason for these experiences is discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we are going to discuss in this and the next chapter.
Static means anything that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
- Electric Charge
- Conductors and Insulators
- Charging by Induction
- Basic Properties of Electric Charge
- Coulomb’s Law
- Forces between Multiple Charges
- Electric Field
- Electric Field Lines
- Electric Flux
- Electric Dipole
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Continuous Charge Distribution
- Gauss’s Law
- Applications of Gauss’s Law
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential & Capacitance
When an external force does work in taking a body from a point to another against a force like spring force or gravitational force, that work gets stored as potential energy of the body.
When the external force is removed, the body moves, gaining kinetic energy and losing an equal amount of potential energy. The sum of kinetic and potential energies is thus conserved. Forces of this kind are called conservative forces. Spring force and gravitational force are examples of conservative forces.
Coulomb force between two (stationary) charges is also a conservative force. This is not surprising, since both have inverse-square dependence on distance and differ mainly in the proportionality constants – the masses in the gravitational law are replaced by charges in Coulomb’s law. Thus, like the potential energy of a mass in a gravitational field, we can define electrostatic potential energy of a charge in an electrostatic field.
- Electrostatic Potential
- Potential due to a Point Charge
- Potential due to an Electric Dipole
- Potential due to a System of Charges
- Equipotential Surfaces
- Potential Energy of a System of Charges
- Potential Energy in an External Field
- Electrostatics of Conductors
- Dielectrics and Polarisation
- Capacitors and Capacitance
- The Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
- Combination of Capacitors
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Charges in motion constitute an electric current. Such currents occur naturally in many situations. Lightning is one such phenomenon in which charges flow from the clouds to the earth through the atmosphere, sometimes with disastrous results.
The flow of charges in lightning is not steady, but in our everyday life we see many devices where charges flow in a steady manner, like water flowing smoothly in a river. A torch and a cell-driven clock are examples of such devices. In the present chapter, we shall study some of the basic laws concerning steady electric currents.
- Electric Current
- Electric Currents in Conductors
- Ohm’s Law
- Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
- Limitations of Ohm’s Law
- Resistivity of Various Materials
- Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
- Electrical Energy, Power
- Combination of Resistors – Series and Parallel
- Cells, emf, Internal Resistance
- Cells in Series and Parallel
- Kirchhoff’s Rules
- Wheatstone bridge
- Meter Bridge
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Both Electricity and Magnetism have been known for more than 2000 years. However, it was only about 200 years ago, in 1820, that it was realised that they were intimately related. During a lecture demonstration in the summer of 1820, Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted noticed that a current in a straight wire caused a noticeable deflection in a nearby magnetic compass needle.
He investigated this phenomenon. He found that the alignment of the needle is tangential to an imaginary circle which has the straight wire as its centre and has its plane perpendicular to the wire
- Magnetic Force
- Motion in a Magnetic Field
- Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Field due to a Current Element, Biot-Savart Law
- Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
- Ampere’s Circuital Law
- The Solenoid and the Toroid
- Force between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere
- Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole
- The Moving Coil Galvanometer
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Magnetic phenomena are universal in nature. Vast, distant galaxies, the tiny invisible atoms, humans and beasts all are permeated through and through with a host of magnetic fields from a variety of sources.
The earth’s magnetism predates human evolution. The word magnet is derived from the name of an island in Greece called magnesia where magnetic ore deposits were found, as early as 600 BC.
Shepherds on this island complained that their wooden shoes (which had nails) at times stayed struck to the ground. Their iron-tipped rods were similarly affected. This attractive property of magnets made it difficult for them to move around.
- The Bar Magnet
- Magnetism and Gauss’s Law
- The Earth’s Magnetism
- Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
- Magnetic Properties of Materials
- Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electricity and magnetism were considered separate and unrelated phenomena for a long time. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, experiments on electric current by Oersted, Ampere and a few others established the fact that electricity and magnetism are inter-related.
They found that moving electric charges produce magnetic fields. For example, an electric current deflects a magnetic compass needle placed in its vicinity. This naturally raises the questions like: Is the converse effect possible? Can moving magnets produce electric currents? Does the nature permit such a relation between electricity and magnetism? The answer is resounding yes!
The experiments of Michael Faraday in England and Joseph Henry in USA, conducted around 1830, demonstrated conclusively that electric currents were induced in closed coils when subjected to changing magnetic fields.
In this chapter, we will study the phenomena associated with changing magnetic fields and understand the underlying principles. The phenomenon in which electric current is generated by varying magnetic fields is appropriately called electromagnetic induction.
- The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
- Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction
- Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy
- Motional Electromotive Force
- Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study
- Eddy Currents
- AC Generator
Chapter 7: Alternating Current
We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common.
The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current). Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage.
This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers.
Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use.
- AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor
- Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors – Phasors
- AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
- AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
- AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit
- Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor
- LC Oscillations
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
An electric current produces magnetic field and that two current-carrying wires exert a magnetic force on each other. Further, in Chapter 6, we have seen that a magnetic field changing with time gives rise to an electric field. Is the converse also true? Does an electric field changing with time give rise to a magnetic field?
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), argued that this was indeed the case – not only an electric current but also a time-varying electric field generates magnetic field. While applying the Ampere’s circuital law to find magnetic field at a point outside a capacitor connected to a time-varying current, Maxwell noticed an inconsistency in the Ampere’s circuital law.
He suggested the existence of an additional current, called by him, the displacement current to remove this inconsistency. Maxwell formulated a set of equations involving electric and magnetic fields, and their sources, the charge and current densities. These equations are known as Maxwell’s equations. Together with the Lorentz force formula (Chapter 4), they mathematically express all the basic laws of electromagnetism.
- Displacement Current
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Electromagnetic Spectrum
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Nature has endowed the human eye (retina) with the sensitivity to detect electromagnetic waves within a small range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation belonging to this region of the spectrum (wavelength of about 400 nm to 750 nm) is called light.
It is mainly through light and the sense of vision that we know and interpret the world around us. There are two things that we can intuitively mention about light from common experience. First, that it travels with enormous speed and second, that it travels in a straight line.
It took some time for people to realise that the speed of light is finite and measurable. Its presently accepted value in vacuum is c = 2.99792458 × 108 m s–1. For many purposes, it suffices to take c = 3 × 108 m s–1. The speed of light in vacuum is the highest speed attainable in nature.
- Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
- Total Internal Reflection
- Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses
- Refraction through a Prism
- Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight
- Optical Instruments
Chapter 10: Wave Optics
In 1637 Descartes gave the corpuscular model of light and derived Snell’s law. It explained the laws of reflection and refraction of light at an interface. The corpuscular model predicted that if the ray of light (on refraction) bends towards the normal than the speed of light would be greater in the second medium.
This corpuscular model of light was further developed by Isaac Newton in his famous book entitled OPTICKS and because of the tremendous popularity of this book, the corpuscular model is very often attributed to Newton.
- Huygens Principle
- Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle
- Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
- Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
The Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and Hertz experiments on the generation and detection of electromagnetic waves in 1887 strongly established the wave nature of light. Towards the same period at the end of 19th century, experimental investigations on conduction of electricity (electric discharge) through gases at low pressure in a discharge tube led to many historic discoveries.
The discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895, and of electron by J. J. Thomson in 1897, were important milestones in the understanding of atomic structure. It was found that at sufficiently low pressure of about 0.001 mm of mercury column, a discharge took place between the two electrodes on applying the electric field to the gas in the discharge tube. A fluorescent glow appeared on the glass opposite to cathode.
The colour of glow of the glass depended on the type of glass, it being yellowish-green for soda glass. The cause of this fluorescence was attributed to the radiation which appeared to be coming from the cathode. These cathode rays were discovered, in 1870, by William Crookes who later, in 1879, suggested that these rays consisted of streams of fast moving negatively charged particles.
- Electron Emission
- Photoelectric Effect
- Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
- Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
- Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
- Particle Nature of Light: The Photon
- Wave Nature of Matter
- Davisson and Germer Experiment
Chapter 12: Atoms
By the nineteenth century, enough evidence had accumulated in favour of atomic hypothesis of matter. In 1897, the experiments on electric discharge through gases carried out by the English physicist J. J. Thomson (1856 – 1940) revealed that atoms of different elements contain negatively charged constituents (electrons) that are identical for all atoms.
However, atoms on a whole are electrically neutral. Therefore, an atom must also contain some positive charge to neutralise the negative charge of the electrons. But what is the arrangement of the positive charge and the electrons inside the atom? In other words, what is the structure of an atom?
The first model of atom was proposed by J. J. Thomson in 1898. According to this model, the positive charge of the atom is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the atom and the negatively charged electrons are embedded in it like seeds in a watermelon. This model was picturesquely called plum pudding model of the atom.
However subsequent studies on atoms, as described in this chapter, showed that the distribution of the electrons and positive charges are very different from that proposed in this model.
- Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom
- Atomic Spectra
- Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom
- DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation
Chapter 13: Nuclei
in every atom, the positive charge and mass are densely concentrated at the centre of the atom forming its nucleus. The overall dimensions of a nucleus are much smaller than those of an atom. Experiments on scattering of α-particles demonstrated that the radius of a nucleus was smaller than the radius of an atom by a factor of about 104 .
This means the volume of a nucleus is about 10–12 times the volume of the atom. In other words, an atom is almost empty. If an atom is enlarged to the size of a classroom, the nucleus would be of the size of pinhead. Nevertheless, the nucleus contains most (more than 99.9%) of the mass of an atom.
- Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
- Size of the Nucleus
- Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy
- Nuclear Force
- Nuclear Energy
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Devices in which a controlled flow of electrons can be obtained are the basic building blocks of all the electronic circuits. Before the discovery of transistor in 1948, such devices were mostly vacuum tubes (also called valves) like the vacuum diode which has two electrodes, viz., anode (often called plate) and cathode; triode which has three electrodes – cathode, plate and grid; tetrode and pentode (respectively with 4 and 5 electrodes).
In a vacuum tube, the electrons are supplied by a heated cathode and the controlled flow of these electrons in vacuum is obtained by varying the voltage between its different electrodes. Vacuum is required in the inter-electrode space; otherwise the moving electrons may lose their energy on collision with the air molecules in their path.
In these devices the electrons can flow only from the cathode to the anode (i.e., only in one direction). Therefore, such devices are generally referred to as valves. These vacuum tube devices are bulky, consume high power, operate generally at high voltages (~100 V) and have limited life and low reliability.
The seed of the development of modern solid-state semiconductor electronics goes back to 1930’s when it was realised that some solid state semiconductors and their junctions offer the possibility of controlling the number and the direction of flow of charge carriers through them. Simple excitations like light, heat or small applied voltage can change the number of mobile charges in a semiconductor.
- Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
- Intrinsic Semiconductor
- Extrinsic Semiconductor
- P-n Junction
- Semiconductor Diode
- Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
- Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes
- Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
Conclusion: Jharkhand Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus
So friends! This is the Complete NCERT Syllabus for Intermediate Second Year Class 12 Physics. I hope this article might have helped you in your search for JAC Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020.
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